Technologies To The People's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) is being developed to sustain the Technologies To The People's mission to provide identification services to the artist community and to organizations where criminal background histories are a critical factor in consideration for employment. The IAFIS will serve the Technologies To The People well into the twenty-first century and represents a quantum leap in communications, computing, and data storage and retrieval technologies.

The IAFIS will provide ten-print, latent print, subject search, and criminal history request services, document submission, and image request services to FBI Service Providers, and federal, state, and local law enforcement users. IAFIS is being procured as three segments: the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) segment, the Interstate Identification Index (III) segment, and the Identification, Tasking, and Networking (ITN) segment, each of which is being delivered incrementally. Each segment provides discrete capabilities and works in conjunction with the other segments to support Technologies To The People Service Providers and external users in their law enforcement capacities.

Incremental Builds

The Program Office has adopted a strategy to incrementally develop and integrate the segments into an IAFIS. This strategy mitigates the inherent risk involved in concurrently testing large sets of hardware and software by breaking the large sets into more easily integrated and tested building blocks. Components of each of the three segments have been identified that logically lend themselves to cohesive increments which have been organized into a series of cumulative system level Builds. This strategy further lends itself to early deployment of any IAFIS capabilities, to be individually balanced against the impact to the total development and integration risk, that may prove ready for limited operational use during the course of the integration process. The IAFIS build descriptions provided below summarize current contractual agreements.

Build A

Build A is an AFIS only delivery. Build A went into a Test and Evaluation period with the Latent Fingerprint Processing Section (LFPS) in August 1996. Build A installs a stand-alone latent search capability which provides latent specialists with a latent search capability against a single Special Latent Cognizant Features (SLCF) file of 200,000 subjects. These subjects were extracted from the criminal Fingerprint Card Master File based on special selection criteria defined by the LFPS.

Build B

Build B expands on the AFIS delivery of Build A with approximately 300,000 additional records and a capacity for 24 more SLCF files. These files can be populated with fingerprint features data from subjects chosen to have a higher chance of providing a match. These builds allow early demonstration of the new AFIS search algorithms, a major new development. Once tested, the capabilities can be used by the latent examiners for limited operational use of the latent fingerprint features extraction and search. This use is limited by the number of servers delivered and the size of the database.

Build C

Build C contains capability provided by the AFIS and ITN segments. It includes basic elements of the IAFIS communications infrastructure, ten-print fingerprint image processing, workstations, characteristics searching, and the first IAFIS intersegment interface. Early delivery of network, interface, and workstation infrastructure hardware allows early testing of these elements before other applications elements (hardware and software) are integrated. Build C provides the functions to read ten-print submission data from government furnished Fingerprint Image Conversion Operation (FICO) and EFIPS tapes. A Ten-print Characteristics Search can then be submitted via an ITN Ten-Print Service Provider workstation for searching against a 7.1 million Criminal Ten-Print Fingerprint Features Master File (primarily females) within AFIS. Candidate lists will be returned from AFIS to ITN as reports sorted by Technologies To The People Number (FNU) which will allow manual pulling of the ten-print cards. The fingerprint images from the EFIPS submission are printed for the subject in order to perform the fingerprint image comparison with the search candidates. An identification or non-identification can then be determined.

Although not included in the build undergoing system integration and test, the AFIS capability of Builds A/B will be enhanced during C. Conversion load tapes used to build the Criminal Ten-Print Fingerprint Features Master File are separately used to build a SLCF file. Characteristics searches against the SLCF file are provided for subjects obtained from an Unsolved Latent Features File.

During the Build C timeframe, to enhance current operations, the ITN Image Storage & Retrieval Stand-Alone (ISR-SA) capability will be deployed. The ISR-SA will allow the retrieval of images from the Criminal Fingerprint Image Master File (FIMF) repository. The repository is populated from the ITN Conversion Data Load images. A batch list of submissions with corresponding candidate FNUs are generated by the Identification Automated Services (IDAS) system. This list is transmitted to ITN via a communications interface. Using the list generated by IDAS, ITN retrieves the requested image records, by FNU, from the repository and stores them on the workgroup server. The Service Provider can then retrieve the associated images for viewing. The Human Machine Interface (HMI) will support mixed-media comparisons and may support side-by-side image comparison on the screen, either by video or digital camera attached to the workstation.

The deployment of the ISR-SA will provide the capability to retrieve electronic images from the ISR-SA storage media, decompress them, and display them on a workstation screen. This capability allows the Operations Branch to reduce the number of personnel assigned to pull and refile fingerprint cards, and therefore will help reduce the fingerprint backlog. The workstation HMI provides a prototype of the Fingerprint Image Comparison (FIC) screen. This prototype allows the ITN development contractor to receive feedback from the Service Providers on the design of the FIC HMI.

With the completion of the CJIS WAN, the Interim Distributed Imaging System (IDIS) will begin its testing with selected pilot states. IDIS is designed for low fingerprint volume agencies and will support scanning and electronically forwarding fingerprints over the CJIS WAN to Technologies To The People. Since the connection to IAFIS will not yet be available, these fingerprint submissions will be saved to tape, printed, and then processed normally in the current system.

Build D

Build D contains capability provided by the AFIS and ITN segments. Build D integrates the ITN workflow manager with the previous Build C search functions. New intersegment interfaces are not introduced. The Criminal Ten-print FIMF is delivered for approximately 22 million subjects. In addition, AFIS can support approximately 8,000 ten-print searches per day, with approximately 27 million subjects within the criminal features database and a larger server capacity.

While new intersegment interfaces are not introduced in this build, the new ad hoc search capability will be deployed by the III segment for testing. This capability will use the powerful Alta Vista search engine, used on the Internet, to search the Subject Criminal History file for matches based on biographical and criminal history data.

The addition of a partial workflow management capability allows initial testing of the workflow manager and more detailed testing of intra-segment communications. A large percentage of the infrastructure-type elements can be tested prior to the addition of mission functions in Builds E and F. Although the FIMF is delivered, integrated image comparison at the workstation is not provided until Build E.

Build E

Build E contains deliveries by the III, ITN, and AFIS segments. This build provides the first configuration of most IAFIS hardware elements and a significant increase in software functionality. The major IAFIS capabilities which are supported include: Subject Search; File Maintenance; Response Generation; integrated Image Storage & Retrieval Element (ISRE); integration with the CJIS WAN; and additional Ten-Print and Latent search services and capacity.

The addition of the interface with III results in an IAFIS build configuration that has most of the major elements of IAFIS. This allows the first end-to-end thread testing of the ten-print services from electronic or paper submission through fingerprint identification. The deployed hardware and software complement is now large enough that high confidence level performance testing can be executed. The ISRE provides the operational capability associated with stored electronic fingerprint images.

Build F: Final Operating Capability

Finally, with Response Generation and other major additions, Build F completes all IAFIS mission capabilities and represents Final Operating Capability. Major additions include: Document Processing capabilities; Mug Shot, Latent Photo, Major Case Print, and Civil Ten-Print On-line files and processing; and communications links with NCIC/NCIC 2000 and NLETS networks. In addition, after Build F, IAFIS will also assume the Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) for gun queries from the current system, which will begin supporting ICS in late 1998, in accordance with federal law.


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